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Sunday, May 22, 2016

Distracted eating

We all do it sometimes. We grab a snack and plop down on the couch to watch a movie. Before we know it the whole thing is gone. We only meant to eat some of it, but downed it in one sitting.

That is distracted eating at it's finest. It exemplifies the problem of eating without intention. Not because of hunger. Not even healthy foods typically. Just eating because it's there.

What happened to sitting around the table and eating as a family without the tv or cell phones?

Photo source: Wikimedia


I see many kids who always have distracted eating.

The youngest might fit into another category all together, but they certainly aren't intentionally eating. These are the babies who parents "dream feed" - basically feed them while they're sleeping. This can be because they don't eat as parents think they should when they're awake or because parents want to get one more feed in before they go to bed so baby will let them sleep. I know many parents rely on it, but I will never recommend it for many reasons. It can disrupt their normal sleep cycles if you feed during periods of deep sleep.  Dream feeds also feed a baby who might not be hungry or need to eat, and it is hard to know when to stop. After the first few months most babies don't need to eat at night, but they are trained to eat at that time. Once they get teeth it can increase the risk of cavities if they eat without brushing teeth before returning to sleep. There are also risks of choking. And again, I firmly believe that we all need to eat when hungry and not just because there's food offered.

As kids move into the toddler years, they often become picky with foods and eat small volumes. This is normal. Parents need to offer healthy foods and feed small frequent meals. Think of snacks as mini meals so you will offer healthy foods - and no, goldfish crackers are not healthy foods. Young children tend to eat about six small meals a day. Each meal offer either a fruit or a vegetable and a protein to help insure your child gets enough of these food groups daily.

Unfortunately, some parents solve the "problem" of kids not eating a lot at meal times by allowing them to carry around food all hours of the day. This might be cereal, crackers, milk, or whatever the favorite food of the week is. This allows the child to snack all day, which means they are never hungry, so they don't eat at meal times. Parents will think it's better than eating nothing, and even think that since it's cereal or milk it's healthy. But it's not. These foods are usually highly processed and have little nutrition. Constantly nibbling doesn't allow the body to learn hunger cues. It also doesn't allow saliva to clean teeth between feedings, which increases the risk of cavities. If kids drink excessive milk they are at risk of severe malnutrition. Parents argue that milk is healthy, but they are thinking of mother's milk or formula for infants. Cow's milk has protein, calcium, and other nutrients, but it is not a complete meal substitute. I have seen children need blood transfusions due to severe iron deficiency anemia from excessive milk intake. Blood transfusions. It can be that bad. Yes, your child might like milk. And he might refuse to eat at meal time. But if you keep giving milk he will never get hungry enough to eat the food offered.

Other parents realize that kids will eat more if they feed the child, especially if the child is watching tv. This is wrong on many levels.

  • Once kids are able to feed themselves, it is a great skill to use. They work on fine motor skills when self feeding. 
  • Kids need to learn to pick (from healthy choices hopefully) which food they will eat next and to stop when full. When parents do the feeding, they keep pushing foods until the plate is empty. Many parents have an unrealistic appreciation of how much food a child should eat. 
  • If a child is watching tv while eating, the focus is on the screen, not the food. Again, the child then doesn't listen to hunger and satiety cues.
I see several kids each year who will be going to full day school (kindergarten or 1st grade depending on the child) and parents worry that they won't be able to eat lunch because they never self feed. Many of these kids are overweight because they've been overfed for years but the parents often think the child doesn't eat enough.

If families eat while watching television or playing on smart phones or tablets, no one is connecting during the meal. No one is really enjoying the food or the conversation. There are many studies that show the more often families eat together (really together, not sitting at a table connected to a screen) the less likely kids will develop obesity, get depressed, do drugs, smoke, and consider suicide. Kids who eat with their families are more likely to eat healthy foods, do well in school, delay having sex, and have stronger family ties.

Help stop the habit of mindless eating. Encourage eating at the table as a family as much as possible. Offer healthy food choices and let everyone decide how much of each thing to eat. If you worry that your child isn't eating adequately, talk to your pediatrician.

For more, see my related blogs:


Resources:

MyPlate offers portion sizes for children, tips on healthy foods, activities for kids to learn about nutrition, and more.

If you're a Pinterest fan, check out my Nutritional Sites and Getting Kids to Eat Vegetables and Other Healthy Stuff

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Stool colors & patterns in infants: What's normal & when should you worry?

Help! My baby is constipated. She hasn't pooped for days.

We hear versions of this all the time.

Constipation isn't defined by how often babies have a bowel movement. A breastfed baby might have a bowel movement every time he eats (and in between) or he might go less than once a week. (Watch out when it finally comes - it often escapes the diaper!) Most formula fed babies have a bowel movement 1-3 times a day. Babies who get some breast milk and some formula can have characteristics of each feeding type.

During the first few days of life the stool looks black and is thick. This is called meconium. It occurs in both breast fed and formula fed babies. If your baby doesn't have meconium within 24 hours of birth an evaluation to decide if there's a problem should be done. Be sure to talk with your baby's doctor if he doesn't poop within 24 hours of birth or if the meconium is formed like a plug. (See a photo on Stanford's newborn page.)

Meconium stool. Photo by Azoreg via Wikimedia Commons

After the first few days there is a period of transition stool. The stools become more green and sticky. This is the meconium mixed with breastmilk or formula stools. It happens earlier in formula babies and after mother's milk comes in for breast fed babies.

After the transitional stools, the stools will vary in color and consistency depending on if the baby gets breastmilk or formula. If breastmilk is the primary food, the stools can vary quite a bit. They often look like yellow cottage cheese, with a lot of liquid and chunks. It often becomes a bit thicker (like pudding) as a baby gets older. It is not diarrhea just because it is watery. Breast fed stools can vary in shades of yellow to brown or green, often changing depending on what the mother ate. Bright green and frothy stools can indicate a low fat diet in a breast fed baby. The fore milk has less fat than the hind milk, so if the baby consistently has frothy bright green stools we will monitor the baby's weight closely to ensure adequate growth and evaluate the amount of milk the mother is producing and baby is drinking.

If a baby is taking formula, the stools can look shades of yellow and brown and be the consistency of peanut butter, pudding, or thick oatmeal. Formula fed stools tend to smell more foul than breast milk stools, but even breast fed baby poops can stink.

Once a baby eats solids (or pureed foods) the stools can thicken a bit but should never be hard. They usually become more foul smelling at this time. Sometimes chunks of food (especially carrots, corn, and raisins) can be seen in the stool. This is normal.

If a baby takes an iron supplement the stools might turn dark green or black. This is normal and not a concern. This does not happen from the amount of iron in baby formula. All formula should have iron. It is an important nutrient for all babies and low iron formula is not recommended.

What's important?

  • A term baby should gain about 15-30 grams per day after the first week of life.
  • Blood in the stool can be from swallowed blood (often from a crack in mother's nipple), constipation, food allergy (usually cow's milk protein), or infection and should be evaluated.
  • It is normal to have different shades of yellow, brown, and green stools.
  • A baby with a swollen (distended) abdomen and discomfort or a change in feeding patterns should be examined.
  • A baby should not have formed stools as long as they are on primarily breast milk or formula.
  • Poop should never be a shade of white (liver concerns), red (blood), or black -if not on iron supplements (digested blood).
  • Mucus in stool could be simply swallowed mucus but can be a sign of infection or food allergy.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Meningitis Risks and Preventions

Meningitis is thankfully uncommon, but when it happens it can be deadly. Meningitis is an inflammation in the membranes around the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It is usually caused by a virus, but many bacteria and fungi can also infect the meninges. Symptoms include headache, fever, and stiff neck and may include other symptoms depending on the organism causing the infection.

I wanted to write about meningitis because with the newest vaccine against meningitis, I am concerned that parents don't recognize what exactly their children are protected against and what risks remain after vaccination. I will break down meningitis by type of organism causing the inflammation, and include any vaccines and treatments available for that type within that grouping.

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency. Even with early treatment with antibiotics, it can be devastating. If a person survives, many of the bacteria can cause permanent brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, and loss of limbs. Anne Geddes, a photographer famous for her pictures of infants and children, has worked with Novartis Vaccines and the Confederation of Meningitis Organizations (CoMo) to create Protecting Our Tomorrows: Portraits of Meningococcal Disease, a book that is available for a free download on iTunes that shows people who have survived meningitis.

Photo by Mikael Häggström


The type of bacteria causing meningitis varies by age group. Fortunately the bacteria that cause meningitis are not as contagious as things we more commonly see, such as the common cold, but whenever there's a case of bacterial meningitis the health department will identify risks and help treat contacts at risk. The bacteria don't always lead to meningitis, but may be found in healthy people or cause other types of infections as well, such as ear infections, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. 
  • Newborns tend to be infected with bacteria that can be a part of the mother's urogenital tract. Group B Streptoccous (GBS), Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes are most common. Pregnant women are screened for GBS and treated with antibiotics prior to delivery if possible. Pregnant women should handle foods properly and avoid certain foods to protect against Listeria.
  • Infants and children are most at risk from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Thankfully starting at two months of age infants can get vaccines against Hib since 1985. A vaccine against 7 strains of pneumococcus became available in the year 2000, and it was improved to protect against 13 strains of pneumococcus since 2010. There are over 90 known strains of pneumococcus, but the vaccine covers the majority of strains that cause severe illnesses. Vaccination against N. meningitidis is not routinely given to infants at this time.
  • Teens and young adults are at risk from Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Younger teens who are up to date on vaccines have been vaccinated against S pneumoniae, but since the vaccine was introduced in 2000, older teens might have missed this vaccine and it is not recommended to do catch up unless they are in a high risk group, such as if they are immune compromised or missing a spleen. 
  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menactra®- which covers A, C, W, Y subtypes, Menveo®- which covers A, C, W, Y subtypes and MenHibrix®- which covers C, Y, and Hib) is recommended as part of the routine vaccine schedule at 11-12 years of age with a booster at 16 years. It is also recommended at younger ages for high risk people (immune compromise, spleen issues, and certain travel).
  • Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Bexsero® and Trumenba®- both cover subtypeB). This is only recommended with a permissive use status, meaning it is not highly recommended for any age group, but it is allowed to be given to anyone over 16 years of age and is encouraged for high risk people, sometimes down to 10 years of age, depending on the risk. High risk people are those with known immune problems, specific chronic diseases, or who have no working spleen. High risk might include when there is a known outbreak, so if your college student hears of meningitis on campus don't let them think they don't need it due to vaccination with one of the vaccines that covers A, C, W, and Y. Some colleges require vaccination against meningitis B in addition to A, C, W and Y. 

Viral Meningitis

Viral meningitis is much more common but less deadly than bacterial meningitis. There are many types of viruses that cause meningitis, and usually there is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, just like other viral illnesses. Most people who get viral meningitis completely recover on their own within 7 to 10 days. People with meningitis caused by certain viruses such as herpesvirus and influenza may benefit from treatment with an antiviral medication. If there are symptoms of meningitis, it is important to quickly get the proper testing done to determine if treatment is needed or not. Prevention with standard hand washing and other measures to prevent the spread of viruses is important. Some vaccinations can protect against diseases that can cause meningitis, such as measles, mumps, chickenpox, and influenza. Since mosquitoes, other insects, and rodents can spread disease, avoiding bites can help prevent infection.

Fungal Meningitis 

Fungal meningitis is very rare and does not spread from person to person. It occurs when a person with a weak immune system is infected with a fungus that spreads to the brain or spinal cord.